In our last post, 31. Passover – Exodus Interrogated II, we uncovered an additional eight points of evidence dealing with our investigation of the Festival of Passover and Unleavened Bread:
8. There are a total of 7 days of eating unleavened bread.
9. The first and seventh days are High Sabbaths.
10. It was during the night of Passover, Abib 14, that the Israelites came out of Egypt, the house of bondage.
11. The Hebrew terms arab (evening) and byn ha-arabim (between the evenings) are synonymous and mean the time period just after sunset and before dark which begins the scriptural day.
12. One is to eat unleavened bread from the beginning of Abib 14 until the beginning of Abib 21 for a total of seven days of eating unleavened bread.
13. After the killing of the Passover lamb, the sprinkling of blood on the door frame, and the Passover meal at the beginning of Abib 14, the Israelites were not to leave their houses until morning.
14. It was the destroyer named Yahweh who killed all the Egyptian firstborn.
15. The day of Passover is to be observed as an ordinance or statute until a future world-age lasting time.
We will now proceed to solve this case with our third and final installment.
And it came to pass, that at midnight Yahweh smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle.
BHS – וַיְהִ֣י בַּחֲצִ֣י הַלַּ֗יְלָה וַֽיהוָה֮ הִכָּ֣ה כָל־בְּכֹור֮ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַיִם֒ מִבְּכֹ֤ר פַּרְעֹה֙ הַיֹּשֵׁ֣ב עַל־כִּסְאֹ֔ו עַ֚ד בְּכֹ֣ור הַשְּׁבִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּבֵ֣ית הַבֹּ֑ור וְכֹ֖ל בְּכֹ֥ור בְּהֵמָֽה׃
LXX – Ἐγενήθη δὲ μεσούσης τῆς νυκτὸς καὶ Κύριος ἐπάταξεν πᾶν πρωτότοκον ἐν γῇ Αἰγύπτῳ, ἀπὸ πρωτοτόκου Φαραὼ τοῦ καθημένου ἐπὶ τοῦ θρόνου ἕως πρωτοτόκου τῆς αἰχμαλωτίδος τῆς ἐν τῷ λάκκῳ, καὶ ἕως πρωτοτόκου παντὸς κτήνους.
After the Passover meal, which occurred at the beginning of Abib 14, during the middle of the night all the firstborn of Egypt are killed.
AND PHARAOH ROSE UP IN THE NIGHT, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead.
BHS – וַיָּ֨קָם פַּרְעֹ֜ה לַ֗יְלָה ה֤וּא וְכָל־עֲבָדָיו֙ וְכָל־מִצְרַ֔יִם וַתְּהִ֛י צְעָקָ֥ה גְדֹלָ֖ה בְּמִצְרָ֑יִם כִּֽי־אֵ֣ין בַּ֔יִת אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֵֽין־שָׁ֖ם מֵֽת׃
LXX – καὶ ἀναστὰς Φαραὼ νυκτὸς καὶ οἱ θεράποντες αὐτοῦ καὶ πάντες οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι, καὶ ἐγενήθη κραυγὴ μεγάλη ἐν πάσῃ γῇ Αἰγύπτῳ· οὐ γὰρ ἦν οἰκία ἐν ᾗ οὐκ ἦν ἐν αὐτῇ τεθνηκώς.
And HE PROCLAIMED to Moses and Aaron BY NIGHT, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both you and the children of Israel; AND GO, serve Yahweh, as you have said.
BHS – וַיִּקְרָא֩ לְמֹשֶׁ֨ה וּֽלְאַהֲרֹ֜ן לַ֗יְלָה וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ ק֤וּמוּ צְּאוּ֙ מִתֹּ֣וךְ עַמִּ֔י גַּם־אַתֶּ֖ם גַּם־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וּלְכ֛וּ עִבְד֥וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה כְּדַבֶּרְכֶֽם׃
LXX – καὶ ἐκάλεσεν Φαραὼ Μωυσῆν καὶ Ἀαρὼν νυκτὸς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ἀνάστητε καὶ ἐξέλθατε ἐκ τοῦ λαοῦ μου, καὶ ὑμεῖς καὶ οἱ υἱοὶ Ἰσραήλ· βαδίζετε καὶ λατρεύσατε Κυρίῳ τῷ θεῷ ὑμῶν καθὰ λέγετε·
Pharaoh releases the Israelites from slavery and the Egyptian house of bondage during the night of Abib 14. The Israelites are free to go serve Yahweh in the wilderness. Note, Pharaoh would have sent messengers to Moses and Aaron in Goshen for they were not to leave their houses during the night.
Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, AND BE GONE; and bless me also.
BHS – גַּם־צֹאנְכֶ֨ם גַּם־בְּקַרְכֶ֥ם קְח֛וּ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּרְתֶּ֖ם וָלֵ֑כוּ וּבֵֽרַכְתֶּ֖ם גַּם־אֹתִֽי׃
LXX – καὶ τὰ πρόβατα καὶ τοὺς βόας ὑμῶν ἀναλαβόντες πορεύεσθε, εὐλογήσατε δὲ κἀμέ.
And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste; for they said, We be all dead men.
BHS – וַתֶּחֱזַ֤ק מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ עַל־הָעָ֔ם לְמַהֵ֖ר לְשַׁלְּחָ֣ם מִן־הָאָ֑רֶץ כִּ֥י אָמְר֖וּ כֻּלָּ֥נוּ מֵתִֽים׃
LXX – καὶ κατεβιάζοντο οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι τὸν λαὸν σπουδῇ ἐκβαλεῖν αὐτοὺς ἐκ τῆς γῆς· εἶπαν γὰρ ὅτι Πάντες ἡμεῖς ἀποθνήσκομεν.
After the Israelites come out of their houses during the morning of Abib 14 the Egyptians realized that they were not leaving! The Israelites did not start any travel during that day because they were keeping the High Sabbath of Passover day. Therefore the Egyptians were in a panic to get the Israelites to leave by sundown thinking that the same type of curse would cause all the Egyptians to die the next night of Abib 15.
And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneading troughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders.
BHS – וַיִּשָּׂ֥א הָעָ֛ם אֶת־בְּצֵקֹ֖ו טֶ֣רֶם יֶחְמָ֑ץ מִשְׁאֲרֹתָ֛ם צְרֻרֹ֥ת בְּשִׂמְלֹתָ֖ם עַל־שִׁכְמָֽם׃
LXX – ἀνέλαβεν δὲ ὁ λαὸς τὸ σταῖς πρὸ τοῦ ζυμωθῆναι, τὰ φυράματα αὐτῶν ἐνδεδεμένα ἐν τοῖς ἱματίοις αὐτῶν ἐπὶ τῶν ὤμων.
Most of the Israelites left during the early morning of Abib 15 with their unleavened dough which was made during the night. Also, it had been a very busy night for the Israelites as they needed to be packed up and ready to go by morning. When morning arrived, the Israelites had no time to bake unleavened bread therefore they wrapped the previously prepared dough in cloth to prevent it from becoming naturally leavened. They would bake unleavened bread with this dough when they arrive at Succoth several hours later on Abib 15.
And the children of Israel had also done according to the word of Moses; and they had asked of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment:
BHS – וּבְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֥ל עָשׂ֖וּ כִּדְבַ֣ר מֹשֶׁ֑ה וַֽיִּשְׁאֲלוּ֙ מִמִּצְרַ֔יִם כְּלֵי־כֶ֛סֶף וּכְלֵ֥י זָהָ֖ב וּשְׂמָלֹֽת׃
LXX – οἱ δὲ υἱοὶ Ἰσραὴλ ἐποίησαν καθὰ συνέταξεν αὐτοῖς Μωυσῆς, καὶ ᾔτησαν παρὰ τῶν Αἰγυπτίων σκεύη ἀργυρᾶ καὶ χρυσᾶ καὶ ἱματισμόν.
This verse describes what had taken place during the daylight period of Abib 14.
And Yahweh had given the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they gave to them such things as they asked. And they spoiled the Egyptians.
BHS – וַֽיהוָ֞ה נָתַ֨ן אֶת־חֵ֥ן הָעָ֛ם בְּעֵינֵ֥י מִצְרַ֖יִם וַיַּשְׁאִל֑וּם וַֽיְנַצְּל֖וּ אֶת־מִצְרָֽיִם׃ פ
LXX – καὶ ἔδωκεν Κύριος τὴν χάριν τῷ λαῷ αὐτοῦ ἐναντίον τῶν Αἰγυπτίων, καὶ ἔχρησαν αὐτοῖς· καὶ ἐσκύλευσαν τοὺς Αἰγυπτίους.
This verse also gives the events which occurred during the daylight period of Abib 14. The Egyptians were in a state of panic. They gave whatever the Israelites asked of them in order for them to leave as quickly as possible. To gain additional insight regarding this event, Josephus writes: “Accordingly he (Pharaoh) called for Moses, and bid them be gone; as supposing, that if once the Hebrews were gone out of the country, Egypt should be freed from its miseries. They also honored the Hebrews with gifts; some, in order to get them to depart quickly, and others on account of their neighborhood, and the friendship they had with them.” (Jos. Ant., 2:14:6)
And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children.
BHS – וַיִּסְע֧וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל מֵרַעְמְסֵ֖ס סֻכֹּ֑תָה כְּשֵׁשׁ־מֵאֹ֨ות אֶ֧לֶף רַגְלִ֛י הַגְּבָרִ֖ים לְבַ֥ד מִטָּֽף׃
LXX – Ἀπάραντες δὲ οἱ υἱοὶ Ἰσραὴλ ἐκ Ῥαμεσσὴ εἰς Σοκχώθα εἰς ἑξακοσίας χιλιάδας πεζῶν οἱ ἄνδρες, πλὴν τῆς ἀποσκευῆς.
Most of the Israelites began their travel during the early morning of Abib 15. They arrive at Succoth during the late afternoon of Abib 15. The book of Numbers verifies that the Israelites began their travel from Rameses on Abib 15: “They set out from Rameses in the first month, on the fifteenth day of the first month; on the day after the passover the people of Israel went out triumphantly in the sight of all the Egyptians” (Num. 33:3)
And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.
BHS – וְגַם־עֵ֥רֶב רַ֖ב עָלָ֣ה אִתָּ֑ם וְצֹ֣אן וּבָקָ֔ר מִקְנֶ֖ה כָּבֵ֥ד מְאֹֽד׃
LXX – καὶ ἐπίμικτος πολὺς συνανέβη αὐτοῖς, καὶ πρόβατα καὶ βόες καὶ κτήνη πολλὰ σφόδρα.
And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not delay, neither had they prepared for themselves any provision.
BHS – וַיֹּאפ֨וּ אֶת־הַבָּצֵ֜ק אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֹוצִ֧יאוּ מִמִּצְרַ֛יִם עֻגֹ֥ת מַצֹּ֖ות כִּ֣י לֹ֣א חָמֵ֑ץ כִּֽי־גֹרְשׁ֣וּ מִמִּצְרַ֗יִם וְלֹ֤א יָֽכְלוּ֙ לְהִתְמַהְמֵ֔הַּ וְגַם־צֵדָ֖ה לֹא־עָשׂ֥וּ לָהֶֽם׃
LXX – καὶ ἔπεψαν τὸ σταῖς ὃ ἐξήνεγκαν ἐξ Αἰγύπτου ἐνκρυφίας ἀζύμους, οὐ γὰρ ἐζυμώθη· ἐξέβαλον γὰρ αὐτοὺς οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι, καὶ οὐκ ἠδυνήθησαν ἐπιμεῖναι, οὐδὲ ἐπισιτισμὸν ἐποίησαν ἑαυτοῖς εἰς τὴν ὁδόν.
The Israelites baked unleavened bread during the afternoon of Abib 15 using the dough that was previously prepared before they left Goshen earlier that day. They had no time to make any other food preparations until their arrival at Succoth.
Now the living time of the sons of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.
BHS – וּמֹושַׁב֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָשְׁב֖וּ בְּמִצְרָ֑יִם שְׁלֹשִׁ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וְאַרְבַּ֥ע מֵאֹ֖ות שָׁנָֽה׃
LXX – ἡ δὲ κατοίκησις τῶν υἱῶν Ισραηλ, ἣν κατῴκησαν ἐν γῇ Αἰγύπτῳ καὶ ἐν γῇ Χανααν, ἔτη τετρακόσια τριάκοντα,
One can immediately recognize that this statement is totally detached from the previous verse and is a description of the length of time that the Israelites were in Egypt until Abib 14 of the Exodus. Note that the LXX has “the land of Egypt and the land of Chanaan.” Jacob was 100 years old at the time that the covenant was last confirmed at Bethel and at the time that his last son, Benjamin, was born. Since Jacob was 130 years old when he entered Egypt and appeared before Pharaoh, there had passed 30 years from the time that he left Bethel, where the covenant was confirmed and shortly after which Benjamin was born, before his sons settled in Egypt. When Jacob arrived in Egypt and appeared before Pharaoh, the 400 years of Israelite servitude began.
And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the very same day it came to pass, that all the hosts of Yahweh went out from the land of Egypt.
BHS – וַיְהִ֗י מִקֵּץ֙ שְׁלֹשִׁ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וְאַרְבַּ֥ע מֵאֹ֖ות שָׁנָ֑ה וַיְהִ֗י בְּעֶ֙צֶם֙ הַיֹּ֣ום הַזֶּ֔ה יָֽצְא֛וּ כָּל־צִבְאֹ֥ות יְהוָ֖ה מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם׃
LXX – καὶ ἐγένετο μετὰ τὰ τετρακόσια τριάκοντα ἔτη ἐξῆλθεν πᾶσα ἡ δύναμις κυρίου ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου.
The living time of the sons of Israel in the land of Kanaan and Egypt would have started with the birth of Benjamin, Jacob’s last son, on the 14th of Abib, in the same 100th year of Jacob, thereby also making the statement in Exodus 12:40, regarding the 430 years in Kanaan and Egypt, correct.
It is a NIGHT to be much observed unto Yahweh for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this is THAT NIGHT of Yahweh to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations.
BHS – לֵ֣יל שִׁמֻּרִ֥ים הוּא֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה לְהֹוצִיאָ֖ם מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם הֽוּא־הַלַּ֤יְלָה הַזֶּה֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה שִׁמֻּרִ֛ים לְכָל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לְדֹרֹתָֽם׃ פ
LXX – προφυλακή ἐστιν τῷ κυρίῳ ὥστε ἐξαγαγεῖν αὐτοὺς ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου· ἐκείνη ἡ νὺξ αὕτη προφυλακὴ Κυρίῳ, ὥστε πᾶσιν τοῖς υἱοῖς Ἰσραὴλ εἶναι εἰς γενεὰς αὐτῶν.
This night to be much observed is Passover night of Abib 14 when the Israelites were freed from their bondage to Egypt. Also, see note given on Exodus 12:17.
And Yahweh said unto Moses and Aaron, This is the ordinance (statute) of the Passover: There shall no stranger eat thereof:
BHS – וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוָה֙ אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֣ה וְאַהֲרֹ֔ן זֹ֖את חֻקַּ֣ת הַפָּ֑סַח כָּל־בֶּן־נֵכָ֖ר לֹא־יֹ֥אכַל בֹּֽו׃
LXX – Εἶπεν δὲ Κύριος πρὸς Μωυσῆν καὶ Ἀαρὼν λέγων Οὗτος ὁ νόμος τοῦ πάσχα· πᾶς ἀλλογενὴς οὐκ ἔδεται ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ.
But every man’s servant that is bought for money, when you have circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof.
BHS – וְכָל־עֶ֥בֶד אִ֖ישׁ מִקְנַת־כָּ֑סֶף וּמַלְתָּ֣ה אֹתֹ֔ו אָ֖ז יֹ֥אכַל בֹּֽו׃
LXX – καὶ πᾶν οἰκέτην τινὸς ἢ ἀργυρώνητον περιτεμεῖς αὐτόν, καὶ τότε φάγεται ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ.
A foreigner and an hired servant shall not eat thereof.
BHS – תֹּושָׁ֥ב וְשָׂכִ֖יר לֹא־יֹ֥אכַל־בֹּֽו׃
LXX – πάροικος ἢ μισθωτὸς οὐκ ἔδεται ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ.
In one house shall it be eaten; you shalt not carry forth ought of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall you break a bone thereof.
BHS – בְּבַ֤יִת אֶחָד֙ יֵאָכֵ֔ל לֹא־תֹוצִ֧יא מִן־הַבַּ֛יִת מִן־הַבָּשָׂ֖ר ח֑וּצָה וְעֶ֖צֶם לֹ֥א תִשְׁבְּרוּ־בֹֽו׃
LXX – ἐν οἰκίᾳ μιᾷ βρωθήσεται, καὶ οὐκ ἐξοίσετε ἐκ τῆς οἰκίας τῶν κρεῶν ἔξω, καὶ ὀστοῦν οὐ συντρίψετε ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ.
All the congregation of Israel shall KEEP IT.
BHS – כָּל־עֲדַ֥ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל יַעֲשׂ֥וּ אֹתֹֽו׃
LXX – πᾶσα συναγωγὴ υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ ποιήσει αὐτό.
To “keep it” refers to the observance of Passover at sundown at the beginning of Abib 14.
And when a stranger shall sojourn with you, and will KEEP THE PASSOVER to Yahweh, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land: for no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof.
BHS – וְכִֽי־יָג֨וּר אִתְּךָ֜ גֵּ֗ר וְעָ֣שָׂה פֶסַח֮ לַיהוָה֒ הִמֹּ֧ול לֹ֣ו כָל־זָכָ֗ר וְאָז֙ יִקְרַ֣ב לַעֲשֹׂתֹ֔ו וְהָיָ֖ה כְּאֶזְרַ֣ח הָאָ֑רֶץ וְכָל־עָרֵ֖ל לֹֽא־יֹ֥אכַל בֹּֽו׃
LXX – ἐὰν δέ τις προσέλθῃ πρὸς ὑμᾶς προσήλυτος ποιῆσαι τὸ πάσχα Κυρίῳ, περιτεμεῖς αὐτοῦ πᾶν ἀρσενικόν· καὶ τότε προσελεύσεται ποιῆσαι αὐτό, καὶ ἔσται ὥσπερ καὶ ὁ αὐτόχθων τῆς γῆς· πᾶς ἀπερίτμητος οὐκ ἔδεται ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ.
One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourns among you.
BHS – תֹּורָ֣ה אַחַ֔ת יִהְיֶ֖ה לָֽאֶזְרָ֑ח וְלַגֵּ֖ר הַגָּ֥ר בְּתֹוכְכֶֽם׃
LXX – νόμος εἷς ἔσται τῷ ἐνχωρίῳ καὶ τῷ προσελθόντι προσηλύτῳ ἐν ὑμῖν.
Thus did all the sons of Israel; as Yahweh commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.
BHS – וַיַּֽעֲשׂ֖וּ כָּל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהוָ֛ה אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֥ה וְאֶֽת־אַהֲרֹ֖ן כֵּ֥ן עָשֽׂוּ׃ ס
LXX – καὶ ἐποίησαν οἱ υἱοὶ Ἰσραὴλ καθὰ ἐνετείλατο Κύριος τῷ Μωυσῇ καὶ Ἀαρὼν πρὸς αὐτούς, οὕτως ἐποίησαν.
And it came to pass THIS VERY DAY, that Yahweh did bring the sons of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their hosts.
BHS – וַיְהִ֕י בְּעֶ֖צֶם הַיֹּ֣ום הַזֶּ֑ה הֹוצִ֨יא יְהוָ֜ה אֶת־בְּנֵ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם עַל־צִבְאֹתָֽם׃ פ
LXX – καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ ἐξήγαγεν Κύριος τοὺς υἱοὺς Ἰσραὴλ ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου σὺν δυνάμει αὐτῶν.
“THIS VERY DAY” is the day of which Scriptures have been giving the instructions for Passover on Abib 14. Also, see note on Exodus 12:17)
And Yahweh spoke unto Moses, saying,
BHS – וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר׃
LXX – Εἶπεν δὲ Κύριος πρὸς Μωυσῆν λέγων
Sanctify unto me all the firstborn, whatsoever opens the womb among the sons of Israel, both of man and of beast: it is mine.
BHS – קַדֶּשׁ־לִ֨י כָל־בְּכֹ֜ור פֶּ֤טֶר כָּל־רֶ֙חֶם֙ בִּבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בָּאָדָ֖ם וּבַבְּהֵמָ֑ה לִ֖י הֽוּא׃
LXX – Ἁγίασόν μοι πᾶν πρωτότοκον πρωτογενὲς διανοῖγον πᾶσαν μήτραν ἐν τοῖς υἱοῖς Ἰσραὴλ ἀπὸ ἀνθρώπου ἕως κτήνους· ἐμοί ἐστιν.
And Moses said unto the people, REMEMBER THIS DAY, in which you came out from Egypt, OUT OF THE HOUSE OF BONDAGE; for by strength of hand Yahweh BROUGHT YOU OUT FROM THIS PLACE: there shall NO LEAVENED BREAD BE EATEN.
BHS – וַיֹּ֨אמֶר מֹשֶׁ֜ה אֶל־הָעָ֗ם זָכֹ֞ור אֶת־הַיֹּ֤ום הַזֶּה֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְצָאתֶ֤ם מִמִּצְרַ֙יִם֙ מִבֵּ֣ית עֲבָדִ֔ים כִּ֚י בְּחֹ֣זֶק יָ֔ד הֹוצִ֧יא יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶתְכֶ֖ם מִזֶּ֑ה וְלֹ֥א יֵאָכֵ֖ל חָמֵֽץ׃
LXX – Εἶπεν δὲ Μωυσῆς πρὸς τὸν λαόν Μνημονεύετε τὴν ἡμέραν ταύτην ἐν ᾗ ἐξήλθατε ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου, ἐξ οἴκου δουλίας· ἐν γὰρ χειρὶ κραταιᾷ ἐξήγαγεν ὑμᾶς Κύριος ἐντεῦθεν· καὶ οὐ βρωθήσεται ζύμη.
Scriptures have given no indication of a change of days. “THIS DAY” is still Passover day of Abib 14 when the Israelites went out from the house of bondage and being slaves in the land of Egypt. “NO LEAVENED BREAD” is to be eaten on this day. Also, see note on Exodus 12:17)
THIS DAY you came out in the month Abib.
BHS – הַיֹּ֖ום אַתֶּ֣ם יֹצְאִ֑ים בְּחֹ֖דֶשׁ הָאָבִֽיב׃
LXX – ἐν γὰρ τῇ σήμερον ὑμεῖς ἐκπορεύεσθε ἐν μηνὶ τῶν νέων.
“THIS DAY” of Abib 14.
And it shall be when Yahweh shall bring you into the land of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, which he sware unto your fathers to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey, that you shall keep THIS SERVICE in this month.
BHS – וְהָיָ֣ה כִֽי־יְבִֽיאֲךָ֣ יְהוָ֡ה אֶל־אֶ֣רֶץ הַֽ֠כְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּ֨י וְהָאֱמֹרִ֜י וְהַחִוִּ֣י וְהַיְבוּסִ֗י אֲשֶׁ֨ר נִשְׁבַּ֤ע לַאֲבֹתֶ֙יךָ֙ לָ֣תֶת לָ֔ךְ אֶ֛רֶץ זָבַ֥ת חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָ֑שׁ וְעָבַדְתָּ֛ אֶת־הָעֲבֹדָ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את בַּחֹ֥דֶשׁ הַזֶּֽה׃
LXX – καὶ ἔσται ἡνίκα ἐὰν εἰσαγάγῃ σε Κύριος ὁ θεός σου εἰς τὴν γῆν τῶν Χαναναίων καὶ Χετταίων καὶ Εὑαίων καὶ Γεργεσαίων καὶ Ἀμορραίων καὶ Φερεζαίων καὶ Ἰεβουσαίων, ἣν ὤμοσεν τοῖς πατράσιν σου δοῦναί σοι, γῆν ῥέουσαν γάλα καὶ μέλι, καὶ ποιήσεις τὴν λατρίαν ταύτην ἐν τῷ μηνὶ τούτῳ.
“THIS SERVICE” is the observance of Passover on Abib 14. See above Exodus 12:43, 48.
SEVEN DAYS you shall eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh day shall be a khag (festival) to Yahweh.
BHS – שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים תֹּאכַ֣ל מַצֹּ֑ת וּבַיֹּום֙ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י חַ֖ג לַיהוָֽה׃
LXX – ἓξ ἡμέρας ἔδεσθε ἄζυμα, τῇ δὲ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ἑβδόμῃ ἑορτὴ Κυρίου.
One begins to eat unleavened bread on Abib 14 and continues through Abib 20 for a total of seven days. The seventh day is also a khag or festival day.
Unleavened bread shall be eaten SEVEN DAYS; and there shall no leavened bread be seen with you, neither shall there be leaven seen with you in all your quarters.
BHS – מַצֹּות֙ יֵֽאָכֵ֔ל אֵ֖ת שִׁבְעַ֣ת הַיָּמִ֑ים וְלֹֽא־יֵרָאֶ֨ה לְךָ֜ חָמֵ֗ץ וְלֹֽא־יֵרָאֶ֥ה לְךָ֛ שְׂאֹ֖ר בְּכָל־גְּבֻלֶֽךָ׃
LXX – ἄζυμα ἔδεσθε τὰς ἑπτὰ ἡμέρας, οὐκ ὀφθήσεταί σοι ζυμωτὸν οὐδὲ ἔσται σοι ζύμη ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς ὁρίοις σου.
See previous comment on Exodus 13:6.
And you shall show your son in that day, saying, This is done because of that which Yahweh did unto me when I came forth out of Egypt.
BHS – וְהִגַּדְתָּ֣ לְבִנְךָ֔ בַּיֹּ֥ום הַה֖וּא לֵאמֹ֑ר בַּעֲב֣וּר זֶ֗ה עָשָׂ֤ה יְהוָה֙ לִ֔י בְּצֵאתִ֖י מִמִּצְרָֽיִם׃
LXX – καὶ ἀναγγελεῖς τῷ υἱῷ σου ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ λέγων Διὰ τοῦτο ἐποίησεν Κύριος ὁ θεός μοι, ὡς ἐξεπορευόμην ἐξ Αἰγύπτου.
The Israelites came out of the bondage of Egypt on Passover day of Abib 14.
And it shall be for a sign unto you upon your hand, and for a memorial between your eyes, that Yahweh’s law may be in your mouth: for with a strong hand has Yahweh brought you out of Egypt.
BHS – וְהָיָה֩ לְךָ֨ לְאֹ֜ות עַל־יָדְךָ֗ וּלְזִכָּרֹון֙ בֵּ֣ין עֵינֶ֔יךָ לְמַ֗עַן תִּהְיֶ֛ה תֹּורַ֥ת יְהוָ֖ה בְּפִ֑יךָ כִּ֚י בְּיָ֣ד חֲזָקָ֔ה הֹוצִֽאֲךָ֥ יְהֹוָ֖ה מִמִּצְרָֽיִם׃
LXX – καὶ ἔσται σοι σημεῖον ἐπὶ τῆς χειρός σου καὶ μνημόσυνον πρὸ ὀφθαλμῶν σου, ὅπως ἂν γένηται ὁ νόμος Κυρίου ἐν τῷ στόματί σου· ἐν γὰρ χειρὶ κραταιᾷ ἐξήγαγέν σε Κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἐξ Αἰγύπτου.
See previous comment on Exodus 13:8.
You shall therefore keep this ordinance (statute) in its appointed time from year to year.
BHS – וְשָׁמַרְתָּ֛ אֶת־הַחֻקָּ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את לְמֹועֲדָ֑הּ מִיָּמִ֖ים יָמִֽימָה׃ ס
LXX – καὶ φυλάξεσθε τὸν νόμον τοῦτον ἀφ᾿ ἡμερῶν εἰς ἡμέρας.
The ordinance or statute of the Passover on Abib 14. See above Exodus 12:43, 48.
And it shall be when Yahweh shall bring you into the land of the Canaanites, as he sware unto you and to your fathers, and shall give it to you,
BHS – וְהָיָ֞ה כִּֽי־יְבִֽאֲךָ֤ יְהוָה֙ אֶל־אֶ֣רֶץ הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֔י כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר נִשְׁבַּ֥ע לְךָ֖ וְלַֽאֲבֹתֶ֑יךָ וּנְתָנָ֖הּ לָֽךְ׃
LXX – Καὶ ἔσται ὡς ἂν εἰσαγάγῃ σε Κύριος ὁ θεός σου εἰς τὴν γῆν τῶν Χαναναίων, ὃν τρόπον ὤμοσεν τοῖς πατράσιν σου, καὶ δώσει σοι αὐτήν,
That you shall set apart unto Yahweh all that opens the womb, and every firstling that comes of a beast which you have; the males shall be Yahweh’s.
BHS – וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ֥ כָל־פֶּֽטֶר־רֶ֖חֶם לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְכָל־פֶּ֣טֶר שֶׁ֣גֶר בְּהֵמָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֛ הַזְּכָרִ֖ים לַיהוָֽה׃
LXX – καὶ ἀφελεῖς πᾶν διανοῖγον μήτραν, τὰ ἀρσενικά, τῷ κυρίῳ· πᾶν διανοῖγον μήτραν ἐκ τῶν βουκολίων ἢ ἐν τοῖς κτήνεσίν σου ὅσα ἐὰν γένηταί σοι, τὰ ἀρσενικά ἁγιάσεις τῷ κυρίῳ.
And every firstling of an ass you shall redeem with a lamb; and if you will not redeem it, then you shall break his neck: and all the firstborn of man among your children shalt you redeem.
BHS – וְכָל־פֶּ֤טֶר חֲמֹר֙ תִּפְדֶּ֣ה בְשֶׂ֔ה וְאִם־לֹ֥א תִפְדֶּ֖ה וַעֲרַפְתֹּ֑ו וְכֹ֨ל בְּכֹ֥ור אָדָ֛ם בְּבָנֶ֖יךָ תִּפְדֶּֽה׃
LXX – πᾶν διανοῖγον μήτραν ὄνου ἀλλάξεις προβάτῳ· ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ἀλλάξῃς, λυτρώσῃ αὐτό· πᾶν πρωτότοκον ἀνθρώπου τῶν υἱῶν σου λυτρώσῃ.
And it shall be when your son asks you in time to come, saying, What is this? that you shall say unto him, By strength of hand Yahweh BROUGHT US OUT FROM EGYPT, FROM THE HOUSE OF BONDAGE:
BHS – וְהָיָ֞ה כִּֽי־יִשְׁאָלְךָ֥ בִנְךָ֛ מָחָ֖ר לֵאמֹ֣ר מַה־זֹּ֑את וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֵלָ֔יו בְּחֹ֣זֶק יָ֗ד הֹוצִיאָ֧נוּ יְהוָ֛ה מִמִּצְרַ֖יִם מִבֵּ֥ית עֲבָדִֽים׃
LXX – ἐὰν δὲ ἐρωτήσῃ σε ὁ υἱός σου μετὰ ταῦτα λέγων Τί τοῦτο; καὶ ἐρεῖς αὐτῷ ὅτι Ἐν χειρὶ κραταιᾷ ἐξήγαγεν ἡμᾶς Κύριος ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου, ἐξ οἴκου δουλίας·
When your son asks the meaning of the Passover, the reply to be given is that it was on this day of Abib 14 that, with power, Yahweh brought the Israelites out from Egypt, from the house of bondage.
And it came to pass, when Pharaoh STUBBORNLY REFUSED TO LET US GO, that Yahweh slew all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn of man, and the firstborn of beast: therefore I sacrifice to Yahweh all that opens the womb, being males; but all the firstborn of my children I redeem.
BHS – וַיְהִ֗י כִּֽי־הִקְשָׁ֣ה פַרְעֹה֮ לְשַׁלְּחֵנוּ֒ וַיַּהֲרֹ֨ג יְהֹוָ֤ה כָּל־בְּכֹור֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם מִבְּכֹ֥ר אָדָ֖ם וְעַד־בְּכֹ֣ור בְּהֵמָ֑ה עַל־כֵּן֩ אֲנִ֨י זֹבֵ֜חַ לַֽיהוָ֗ה כָּל־פֶּ֤טֶר רֶ֙חֶם֙ הַזְּכָרִ֔ים וְכָל־בְּכֹ֥ור בָּנַ֖י אֶפְדֶּֽה׃
LXX – ἡνίκα δὲ ἐσκλήρυνεν Φαραὼ ἐξαποστεῖλαι ἡμᾶς, ἀπέκτεινεν πᾶν πρωτότοκον ἐν γῇ Αἰγύπτῳ ἀπὸ πρωτοτόκων ἀνθρώπων ἕως πρωτοτόκων κτηνῶν· διὰ τοῦτο ἐγὼ θύω πᾶν πρωτότοκον τῷ κυρίῳ, πᾶν διανοῖγον μήτραν, τὰ ἀρσενικά, καὶ πᾶν πρωτότοκον τῶν υἱῶν μου λυτρώσομαι.
Up to this point Pharaoh still has not released the Israelites from their bondage to Egypt. The day that Yahweh slew all the firstborn of Egypt was the night of Passover on Abib 14.
And it shall be for a token upon your hand, and for frontlets between your eyes: for by strength of hand Yahweh brought us forth out of Egypt.
BHS – וְהָיָ֤ה לְאֹות֙ עַל־יָ֣דְכָ֔ה וּלְטֹוטָפֹ֖ת בֵּ֣ין עֵינֶ֑יךָ כִּ֚י בְּחֹ֣זֶק יָ֔ד הֹוצִיאָ֥נוּ יְהוָ֖ה מִמִּצְרָֽיִם׃ ס
LXX – καὶ ἔσται εἰς σημεῖον ἐπὶ τῆς χειρός σου, καὶ ἀσάλευτον πρὸ ὀφθαλμῶν σου· ἐν γὰρ χειρὶ κραταιᾷ ἐξήγαγέν σε Κύριος ἐξ Αἰγύπτου.
It was during the night of Passover on Abib 14 that, with great power, Yahweh brought the Israelites out from Egypt, from the house of bondage.
It is the hope that for many, as they analyze the evidence devoid of any preconceived conclusions, there would be a clear and concise understanding of Yahweh’s instructions regarding Passover as given to Moses and Aaron.
The bottom line is that, according to the book of Exodus, the following conclusions can firmly be made regarding the events of Passover:
• The Passover lamb was chosen on Abib 10.
• Abib 14 is a khag (festival) day.
• Abib 14 is a High Sabbath day.
• The Passover lamb was sacrificed and roasted just after sundown on Abib 14 which begins the day.
• The roasted lamb was eaten with unleavened bread during the early night of Abib 14.
• On Abib 14, in the middle of the night, Yahweh killed all the firstborn of Egypt.
• During the night of Abib 14, Yahweh caused Pharaoh to release the Israelites from the land of Egypt, the house of bondage.
• In the morning of Abib 14 the Israelites came out of their houses but did not proceed to leave.
• The Egyptians gave many gifts of gold and silver to urge the Israelites to leave quickly because they thought the same plague of death would kill them all the very next night of Abib 15.
• The Israelites observed the High Sabbath of Abib 14 and did not proceed to pack or travel.
• The Israelites were able to leave when the High Sabbath concluded after sundown beginning the day of Abib 15.
• After sundown of Abib 15, the Israelites would begin to prepare for travel.
• During the night of Abib 15, fresh bread dough would be made for the next meal.
• With time running out for travel to Succoth and to arrive before Abib 16 (a weekly Sabbath), the Israelites have to leave during the early morning hours of Abib 15.
• The Israelites wrapped the unbaked dough in cloth so as to not cause the dough to become naturally leavened as they leave for Succoth.
• Yahweh had commanded the Israelites to eat unleavened bread for seven days.
• When the Israelites come to Succoth several hours later, the last ones arriving during the afternoon of Abib 15, they baked and ate unleavened bread from the dough that was prepared before they left.
• Abib 15 is the second day of eating unleavened bread.
• The seven days of Unleavened Bread are Abib 14-20.
In conclusion, all of the evidence supports the true and original practice as presented by System A which adheres to the precise instructions as put forth in the book of Exodus. This is the same practice that Yahushua the messiah and his apostles observed and which was continued by the early followers of Yahushua and the apostles. These early followers were the Quartodecimans.
This particular Passover investigation is considered to be officially over and and can be filed under “case closed.”
So, be on the lookout for more installments to our Passover topic. You can be sure that things will be getting a lot more interesting.