Archive for category Easter
When it comes to the issue of determining New Moons by visiblity or calculation, there are a number of questions one should consider when trying to ascertain Yahweh’s truth of the matter.
It seems that many people have been convinced by the religious leaders of various Sacred Name groups that not only must one actually see the visible crescent of the new moon but must also determine the greenness of the barley crop for the New Year.
These religious leaders purport to know and understand the true criteria for the determination of Yahweh’s calendar. They also claim their knowledge and understanding comes directly from Scriptures.
In addition, these religious leaders claim that the formula they claim emanates from Scriptures is very simple. So simple that Yahweh has provided the means for virtually anyone to determine the beginning of months and years regardless of circumstance.
Well almost anyone. You might not be so fortunate if you don’t have 20-20 vision or are not a farmer.
Another witness comes from an extra-biblical work, namely the Book of Yashar, also known as Sefer Ha-Yashar.
The present copy of the Book of Yashar is by no means to be assigned the authority of Scriptures but what the text has to say regarding the Passover of the Exodus nevertheless proves quite informative and interesting to say the least.
Book of Yashar
81:5 And the children of Israel TRAVELED FROM EGYPT AND FROM GOSHEN AND FROM RAMESES, AND ENCAMPED IN SUCCOTH ON THE FIFTEENTH DAY of the first month.
This person is named in the New Testament as Pontios Pilatos or as many would recognize him, Pontius Pilate. He was the Roman prefect (governor) of Judaea under the emperor Tiberius, from 26-36 C.E.
The circumstances occurred during the time that Yahushua the messiah was brought before Pontius Pilate by the Jewish religious leaders to exact an execution to be legally carried out by the Roman state.
The historical evidence dates this event to Abib 14, Passover day, of the year 30 C.E., corresponding to April 6, and was a Thursday.
Was it possible that Pilate was capable of grasping some sense of truth from Yahushua?
Although all of the evidence from Scriptures unequivocally makes “between/among the arabim (evenings)” begin at sunset and end at dark, there is one challenge made by the advocates of
System B (the Hasidic position) which must be addressed: their interpretation of Leviticus 23:26-32.
Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur)
Though the section begins by stating that “on the tenth day of this seventh month is a Day of Atonement,” a sacred convocation, and a day of humbling, i.e., fasting,1 it later gives a statement which is popularly translated to mean: Read the rest of this entry »
This Passover Series so far has endeavored to lay the groundwork for a much-needed and long-overdue discussion regarding the correct method for observing the Festival of Passover and Unleavened Bread.
What has been lacking from any previous discussions, especially among the various Sacred Name groups of today, is the history of the earliest Christians and their Passover practice during the first few centuries C.E.
One of the reasons for this oversight is the fact that there are many who are not even aware that such a history exists!
To counter the ignorance of historical evidence, this Series has brought the true Passover practice of the Quartodecimans to light along with the importance that it be included as a consideration in the ongoing quest for Yahweh’s truth of the matter.
What had begun in c.196 C.E. as a challenge to the Quartodeciman practice of Passover/Unleavened Bread (System A) by Victor, bishop of Rome, was finally granted full authority throughout the Roman empire at the behest of Emperor Constantine.
Constantine convened the Council of Nicaea in 325 C.E.
Authority from Constantine
One of the results of this conference was the declaration by Constantine that the Hasidic view for the seven days of Unleavened Bread, as instituted by Pope Victor, was the correct system under the Torah.
We will now focus on the evidence demonstrating the mechanics of the Christian Hasidic construct as represented by Roman assembly System E and its evolution resulting in the present-day Modern Hybrid System G as practiced by the many Sacred Name groups of today.
Eventually a more recent innovation of Passover and Unleavened Bread was created which is being followed by many present-day followers of Yahweh, the Modern Hybrid System G.
We shall begin our discussion by examining the evidence for the Roman assembly System E construct. The evidence will demonstrate the change by the western assemblies to the Hasidic method for the seven days of Unleavened Bread.
Regarding the Roman construct (System E) of the Festival of Passover and Unleavened Bread, we will now address the protagonists of this Christian Hasidic practice who opposed the Quartodecimans (System A) and the Quasi-Quartodecimans (System D).
Irenaeus (c.140-202 C.E.), presbyter and bishop of the diocese of Lyons, Gaul (France),1 was a vital player in the formulation of this new Roman assembly view.
Though early in his life he lived in Asia among the Quartodecimans and personally knew Polycarp, in his adult life he helped direct the western assemblies toward their new path.2
Nevertheless, there was strong resistance by the Roman assembly.
The Quartodeciman (System A) and Quasi-Quartodeciman (System D) practice was made more difficult to overcome by the fact that they were both based upon the same apostolic authority (the apostle John).1
It soon became obvious that if the Roman assembly was to gain political dominance in the West, as well as over many of the eastern assemblies, a new strategy was required.
In response, during the last decade of the second century C.E., the western leaders and theologians developed a new approach: the Roman assembly Passover and, after the Council of Nicaea in 325 C.E., canonized as the Roman Catholic Passover (System E).
Proof that the seven days of Unleavened Bread for the Quartodecimans extended from the 14th until the end of the 20th day of the first lunar month is established from records provided by their offshoots, the quasi-Quartodecimans of System D.
The most important source for their view is found in the records of Anatolius of Alexandria.
To his words we can add the statements provided by the Audians and several bishops representing assemblies located in different parts of Europe.
Anatolius of Alexandria
Like the Quartodecimans, those who kept System D observed the 14th until the end of the 20th for the seven days of Unleavened Bread.
The most famous advocate of this system was Anatolius of Alexandria (c.230-283 C.E.).1
For the Quartodeciman practice (System A), being the original view of the early Christian assemblies, and its quasi-Quartodeciman offshoot System D (the early western view), these seven days began with the 14th and extended until the end of the 20th day of the first lunar month.
We begin to uncover this important detail by demonstrating three facts:
• The Quartodecimans observed the 14th of Abib as a high Sabbath (great festival day) and as the first of the seven days of Unleavened Bread.
• The quasi-Quartodecimans kept the same seven days of Unleavened Bread as observed by the early Quartodecimans.
• Both the early Quartodecimans of System A and the quasi-Quartodecimans of System D deferred to the apostle John as their ultimate authority for establishing which days were to be observed for the seven days of Unleavened Bread.
An important fact regarding the Quartodecimans that has been missed by most followers of Yahweh is that the Quartodecimans claimed and demonstrated authority from Yahushua the messiah and Scriptures for their practice of Passover.
Though they considered themselves not to be under the written Torah, they followed the guides of the Torah with regard to “all the festivals.”
Chrysostom (347-407 C.E.)
Chrysostom, a strong advocate of the Roman Catholic System E, for example, demonstrates this point in his work titled Adversus Judaeos, where he condemns the Quartodeciman Christians because of their practice of celebrating such scriptural high Sabbath days as the Day of Trumpets, the Day of Atonement, and the Festival of Tabernacles.1
Of all the professed followers of Yahweh, few are aware that during the first four centuries C.E. support was very strong among the early disciples and assemblies following Yahushua the messiah for the Aristocratic system of keeping Passover (System A).
It may also come as a surprise to learn that this view was in fact the original practice of all the earliest orthodox Christians.
Its advocates and supporters were in later centuries referred to as the Quartodecimans (14th keepers).
In our posts dealing with the Quartodecimans we shall investigate the antiquity of the Quartodeciman practice, demonstrate that they observed the 14th day of the first moon for the Passover supper, and present their claim that they observed Passover according to both Scriptures and the examples set forth by the messiah and his apostles.